Portland Cement: Material made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay in a kiln at about 1450 C, then grinding to a fine powder with a small addition of gypsum. Portland Cement, the main subject of this site, is the most common type of cement - 'basic cement', if you like. In particular, ordinary Portland cement is the normal, grey, cement with which most people are familiar. Other types of Portland cement include White Portland Cement and Sulfate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC).
Clinker: Portland cement is made by grinding clinker and a little added gypsum. Clinker is a nodular material before it is ground up. The nodules can be anything from 1mm to 25mm or more in diameter.
Cement: Usually taken to mean Portland Cement, but could mean any other type of cement, depending on the context.
Aggregate: Cobbles, pebbles, gravel, sand and silt - the 'rock' component of all particle sizes in concrete.
Concrete: Synthetic rock made using cement (usually, but not necessarily, Portland cement) mixed with aggregate and water.
Mortar: Mixture of cement and fine aggregate, mainly sand. Used typically to bond bricks and building stone.
Grout: Mixture of cement (possibly of various types) and other fine material such as fine sand. Used in a wide range of applications from filling the gaps between bathroom tiles to oil wells.
Composite cements: Some types of cement are mixtures of Portland cement with other material, such as blastfurnace slag from iron production and pulverised fuel ash from coal-fired electricity power stations. These widely-used mixtures are called 'composite' cements.