The separation of particles based on their characteristic specific gravity is one of the oldest and most commonly used separation techniques.
There is a wide range of equipment for separating materials of different density. Such techniques often characterized by their applied medium, gas (air/dry) or liquid (water/wet), are in wide use today in the mining and recycle industries.
Gravity can be very cost efficient and, if applied correctly, is an excellent process for concentrating minerals. One of the most common and cost effective is the spiral concentrator.